|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
12. Income Tax
Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statements carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, operating loss carryforwards, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
In accordance with FASB ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, the Company reflects in the financial statements the benefit of positions taken in a previously filed tax return or expected to be taken in a future tax return only when it is considered ‘more-likely-than-not’ that the position taken will be sustained by a taxing authority. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no unrecognized income tax benefits and correspondingly there is no impact on the Company’s effective income tax rate associated with these items. The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties relating to uncertain income tax positions is to record them as a component of income tax expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no such accruals.
The components of income tax expense (benefit) attributable to continuing operations are as follows:
The differences between the company’s income tax expense attributable to continuing operations and the expense computed at the 21% United States statutory income tax rate were as follows:
The tax effects of temporary differences and operating loss carryforwards that gave rise to significant portions of the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities were as follows at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:
At December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company evaluated all significant available positive and negative evidence, including the existence of losses in recent years and management’s forecast of future taxable income, and, as a result, determined it was more likely than not that federal and state deferred tax assets, including benefits related to net operating loss carryforwards, would not be realized. The valuation allowance was increased from $26,793,281 at December 31, 2019 to $32,484,566 at December 31, 2020. Net Operating Losses created in years beginning after 2017 now only offset 80% of Taxable Income but no longer have a 20 year expiration. As such, NOL’s created after 2017 can be used to offset indefinite lived liabilities up to 80%.
At December 31, 2020, the Company has federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $118,799,856, including $3,027,284 acquired from Pelican Therapeutics, which are available to offset future taxable income. However, due to potential Section 382 limitations (discussed in further detail below) a reserve has been set up for the Pelican Therapeutics NOL of $(2,416,776). The federal net operating loss carryforwards begin to expire in 2029. The Company has various state net operating loss carryforwards totaling approximately $103,538,617 including $2,464,819 from Pelican Therapeutics, which are available to offset future state taxable income. State net operating losses begin to expire in 2024. The Company has various foreign net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $127,610. The foreign net operating loss carryforwards are carried forward indefinitely. Because the Company has incurred cumulative net operating losses since inception, all tax years remain open to examination by U.S. federal, state, and foreign income tax authorities.
In accordance with FASB ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, the Company reflects in the financial statements the benefit of positions taken in a previously filed tax return or expected to be taken in a future tax return only when it is considered ‘more-likely-than-not’ that the position taken will be sustained by a taxing authority. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no unrecognized income tax benefits and correspondingly there is no impact on the Company’s effective income tax rate associated with these items. The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties relating to uncertain income tax positions is to record them as a component of income tax expense in the accompanying statements of income. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no such accruals
The Company files income tax returns in the United States, various state and foreign jurisdictions. The Company is subject to examination by taxing authorities for the tax years ended December 31, 2009 through 2019.
Potential 382 Limitation
The Company’s ability to utilize its net operating loss (NOL) and research and development (R&D) credit carryforwards may be substantially limited due to ownership changes that may have occurred or that could occur in the future, as required by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), as well as similar state provisions. These ownership changes may limit the amount of NOL and R&D credit carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an “ownership change,” as defined by Section 382 of the Code, results from a transaction or series of transactions over a three-year period resulting in an ownership change of more than 50 percent of the outstanding stock of a company by certain stockholders or public groups.
Due to the recent ownership changes, the Company is in the process of performing a study to determine whether a limitation of net operating losses and other attributes under IRC Sections 382 and 383 has occurred. The amount of NOL’s subject to this study are approximately $65 million. Since the study is still in-process, the deferred tax assets attributes subject to limitation are currently included in the consolidated financial statements, offset in full by a valuation allowance. When the section 382 study is complete, the limited deferred tax assets and related valuation allowances will be written off.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef