Fair Value of Financial Instruments
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2019
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments||
3. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amount of certain of the Companys financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other payables approximate fair value due to their short maturities.
As a basis for determining the fair value of certain of the Companys financial instruments, the Company utilizes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level I Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level II Observable inputs, other than Level I prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level III Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
This hierarchy requires the Company to use observable market data, when available, and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the entire fair value measurement requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability. The Company's cash equivalents are classified within Level I of the fair value hierarchy.
As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the fair values of cash, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximated their carrying values because of the short-term nature of these assets or liabilities. The Companys short-term investments consist of Level I securities which are comprised of highly liquid money market funds. The estimated fair value of the short-term investments was based on quoted market prices. There were no transfers between fair value hierarchy levels during the quarters ended March 31, 2019 or 2018.
The fair value of financial instruments measured on a recurring basis is as follows:
The following table summarizes the change in fair value, as determined by Level 3 inputs, for all assets and liabilities using unobservable Level 3 inputs for the year ended March 31, 2019:
The change in the fair value of the contingent consideration for the quarters ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 was primarily due to the effect of the change in discount rate, probability of achieving milestones, and passage of time on the fair value measurement. Adjustments associated with the change in fair value of contingent consideration are included in the Companys consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
The following table presents quantitative information about the inputs and valuation methodologies used for the Companys fair value measurements of contingent consideration classified as Level 3 as of March 31, 2019:
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef